1Division of Agro-industry & Farm Management, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701, Korea
2Division of Plant Biosciences, School of Plant Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701, Korea.
*Corresponding Author: Jae-Keun Sohn, Tel. 82-53-950-5711, Fax. 82-53-950-6880, Email. firstname.lastname@example.org
|Received: May 24, 2013 / Revised: June 24, 2013 / Accept: June 30, 2013|
|Haploids are plants with a gametophytic number of chromosomes in their sporophytes. Androgenesis occurs from asymmetric division of pollen grains into generative cells and vegetative cells, followed by re-entry of the vegetative cell during S-phase, which causes microspores progress into G2/M transition in culture. One of the most interesting features of haploids is the possibility to produce doubled haploid (DH) individuals. Doubled haploidy is extremely useful to plant breeders because it enables shortened breeding periods and efficiency in selection of useful recessive agronomic traits. Doubled-haploid technology is not only applicable to breeding, but also to transformation programs of desired genes. In addition to practical breeding programs, DH lines provide useful materials of fundamental genetics including exploitation of QTLs and genes conferred with various agronomic traits by establishing DH populations. This paper provides historical overviews on androgenesis and describes several mechanisms associated with pollen embryogenesis, including mode of actions in pollen embryogenesis, mechanisms of chromosome doubling and factors affecting androgenesis. We also discuss recent progress in application of haploids to breeding, genes associated with in vitro response and drawbacks to anther culture for application of doubled haploids in crop breeding.|
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